Different Types of Cellular DAS, Trends, and Purchasing Models

In building cell phone user

I recently had a discussion with Jim Muzynoski, who manages our DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) business sales team.  The conversation revolves around cellular DAS solutions, market trends, and different purchasing models.

What are the different types of cellular DAS solutions available?

I’ll talk about non-engineered solutions, semi-engineered solutions, full blown engineered DAS, and I’ll also talk about small cell.  I’ll start lowest to highest, so I’ll start with non-engineered solutions.

Non engineered DAS solutions

Non engineered solutions are low powered cellular boosters that can cover all four carriers but you don’t need to have official carrier approval on them.  These devices are manufactured by Wilson or Surecall, and there are a couple others out there.  They are less than a watt of power.  They are basically monitored within their own hardware to shut off if there’s any interference with the carriers.

You just have to register these devices with the FCC which is easy to do.  They don’t need any sort of carrier approval, the carriers have deemed them low power enough that they won’t impact the macro cellular network, and they are fairly inexpensive. These solutions can probably cover around 20,000 square feet per system, so if you have a 50,000 sf building you might need 2 or more systems in a building.  You can install these inexpensively as well; it’s not using really thick coax or fiber so it makes sense that it’s going to be less expensive for installation.  They work okay as long as you have the proper expectation. If you have decent signal strength on your rooftop and you put one of these systems in, you’ll be able to take and make calls.  It is just limited from a power and capacity perspective so make sure your integrator is going over this with you.  You are not guaranteed coverage since these systems aren’t engineered.  However, your integrator will do their best to map out coverage units based on your floor plan.  Typically we’re seeing pricing come in at $0.25-$0.45 per square foot including installation for non-engineered systems.

Semi engineered DAS solutions

The next step up from a non-engineered solution is a semi-engineered solution and until recently there were no solutions in this niche…it was either non engineered or full blown DAS which could be pretty costly.  Now there’s a company called Whoop Wireless that can provide a lightly engineered solution that usually is in the ballpark of $1-$1.50 per square foot and it is engineered through your integrator. You do need to have carrier approval but those carrier approvals are easier to get than full blown DAS.  They are a little higher power than the non-engineered solution, but it is still not anywhere near the power of traditional neutral host DAS that has all 4 carriers on it and can handle a ton of users and has a huge pipe for data.  This lightly engineered solution by Whoop Wireless can handle capacity but only up to maybe 60-80 users at a time, it’s kind of in between non-engineered and fully engineered and the solution is not as extensive from an installation perspective as well and that’s where some of the cost savings come in as well.

How does Whoop work?

It’s very similar to traditional DAS but there are a couple of differences.  The amplifier is included in the Whoop Wireless solution.  They’ll have it in the head end room.  From the power perspective it’ll be a little less amplification than traditional DAS and you won’t have that thick coax once again.  What’s really different about it is the remote units are actually next to the antenna so instead of having all that signal loss from the amplifier to the antenna you basically have full power coming out of the antenna and that’s what allows them to cover a larger area than a non-engineered solution.

It has good capacity but it’s not nearly enough for a stadium or amphitheater an application for a ton of users.  That’s not what it’s made for.  It is made for apartment complexes and hotels, you know, the 100,000-200,000 sf buildings that struggle to get carrier coordination and struggle to get carrier involvement in any way and need a solution that is fairly inexpensive but still works well.

Fully engineered DAS solution

The fully engineered solution has been around for a while now.  This is what you’ll need if coverage and capacity are driving your needs.  These are going to be active DAS systems meaning power will transport the signal through a distributed fiber network, and the signal will be reconverted to RF by remote units.  That means that building size really isn’t an issue.  You can deploy an engineered DAS for millions of square feet if you need to.  That’s the traditional Commscope, or SOLiD, or Corning solution and is a neutral host solution that can house any or all of the four cellular carriers.  It could be a high power solution in some cases up to 20 watts.  The carrier coordination is usually pretty extensive.  They want to look at all of your full designs in a certain way and they want to look at the macro network surrounding the building to make sure it makes sense to put something in.

Fully engineered solutions have a little bit of uncertainty because you may or may not get the carriers to sign on.  An integrator can talk to the carriers to make sure they do everything they can to sign off but ultimately the carriers control their signal, their frequencies, and can decide whether or not they want a system in place.  Costs can vary quite a bit and you are looking at anywhere from $2-$5 per square foot for this type of system.

Small Cell DAS

Something that is changing in the market right now is engineered cellular DAS has been the go-to solution for carriers and integrators for a long time.  There’s a new solution out there right now called small cell, and small cell for in-building wireless are devices that look very similar to Wi-Fi access points.  All you need for carrier source is an Ethernet backbone.  You don’t need a base station or an amplifier or heavy coax.

They can often only cover a small frequency range and in many cases it’s just a one carrier solution.  You might need multiple access points per carrier but it is a solution that is up and coming and they are trying to figure out a way for one access point cover the entire spectrum of all four carriers.

When that happens it’ll change the market because that solution will be a lot less expensive than an engineered DAS, but it will provide the same or better capacity than a full blown DAS and provide better coverage.  It’s something that has been in the industry for the past 3-4 years and people have been talking about it, expecting it to take off, but because of the limitations of needing multiple small cell devices per carrier it just doesn’t quite make sense yet.  They are making changes and as that comes along it may potentially change the market.

You mentioned the cost for engineered DAS being anywhere from $2-$5 per square foot which is crazy to think about…who has the money for that?  In the past perhaps the carriers footed some of the bill for some of that but can you tell me where the industry is going and are carriers willing to spend money on cellular DAS like they used to?

The carriers in general have changed their outlook on how they’re spending on DAS, especially in the past 10 years there was a huge push for carriers to put in-building systems in place for all large venues- stadiums, hospitals, malls, high rises, and buildings like that.  They were spending a huge amount of money to get coverage in those buildings.

Over the past 2 years carriers have really cut back on their spending and that’s the trend going forward.  A lot of that has to do with they’ve recently spent a lot of money expanding their networks to 4G.  Everybody that needs a cell phone has a cell phone, everyone who needs a tablet has one.  There’s not as much growth in the market anymore, they are not getting a lot of new subscriptions like they used to.  So carriers are less willing to spend money on DAS systems.  In many cases even if you are a large customer of a carrier they are still going to have you foot some of the bill whereas 3-4 years ago they may have paid for it themselves.

Do you have any tips where an end customer can either get the budget for the right solution or minimize their cost in some way?  What are some of the different ownership models for cellular DAS?

This is where an integrator can help find the right fit.  We run into a lot of situations where the customer just needs voice coverage and light data and that’s all they need.  In those cases maybe it’s a non-engineered solution if you don’t have a ton of money to spend.  As you get into needing more data and call capacity then you might run into those semi-engineered or full blown DAS solutions.

There are a few ownership models out there depending how you want to do it.  You can go straight to an integrator and buy your DAS, put the system in and manage the system yourself.  Or, there are companies out there called 3rd party operators that in some cases are willing to buy the DAS, bring in the cellular carriers, and they will in turn charge the carriers a rental on that DAS system.  The use case for 3rd party owned is larger facilities 500,000 sf or more, campus environments, stadiums, convention centers, buildings like that.  You can even set up your own neutral host DAS, but that’s where it’s going to be a lot of money, $2-$5 per square foot, with no guarantee that carriers are going to pay to be on your system.

Lastly, if you have a really good relationship with your carrier, perhaps your carrier will be willing to share the bill for the DAS.  Typically it will be a single carrier situation only.  It’s just that in the past they were much more willing to do that than they are now.

 In order to save money should I have a cellular system and a public safety system on the same DAS?

It’s a question that has come up a lot in the past year.  You can definitely have a cellular system and public safety system on the same DAS but I wouldn’t recommend it.

In many cases new construction projects have to have an emergency responder radio system installed.  And these DAS systems have certain code requirements you need to meet such as 24 hour battery backup, NEMA 4 requirements on the remotes, alarming to name a few.  Due to the different requirements from the emergency responder coverage perspective it is costly to include cellular in the same system…because all of the cellular remotes need to have the same requirements.  In many cases having 2 parallel systems, 1 cellular and 1 public safety is less expensive than having 1 DAS that houses both.  In addition, Public Safety emergency responders like them to be separate because they don’t like having cellular carriers mess with a DAS system that houses public safety and potentially will be turned off or on if the carriers are having trouble with the system.

 Where does Day Wireless fit into the integrator space when it comes to cellular DAS?

In the past we’ve shied away from fully engineered DAS solutions because of the massive amount of carrier coordination and the approval process with the carriers.  But now we can really provide all of the solutions – non-engineered, lightly engineered, fully engineered DAS, and small cell.

We have good relationships with the carriers and understand how to work with them.  We really feel comfortable selling these systems… we’ve done a lot in each niche and we’ve completed a lot of systems.  So there’s nothing we really can’t handle at Day when it comes to cellular DAS.

Mountain Wave Search and Rescue Operations Strengthened with New Vehicle

Mountain Wave Search and Rescue unveiled their new vehicle yesterday which will help search and rescue missions in Oregon stay connected with  state of the art mobile dispatch and communication equipment.  Their “new” vehicle is actually an old fire truck, donated by Tualatin Valley Fire & Rescue, and outfitted by Day Wireless who through countless hours  and partner support donated approximately $230,000 in labor and equipment to get the vehicle operational.



“Effective communication is an essential part of resolving emergencies, especially in remote areas. Mt. Wave can link together all responding organizations, track and record resources, and provide GIS, mapping and tech support. We also maintain caches of radio, satellite trackers, GPS, and other equipment. This generous donation from Day Wireless Systems and TVF&R will dramatically improve our ability to respond to search missions, disasters, and other large-scale emergencies all over the region with state-of-the art equipment.” – Russ Gubele, President, Mt. Wave Search & Rescue

Day Wireless would like to thank all of our vendor partners who helped with donations to the vehicle…there are over 30 of you.  Some of the major contributors include Motorola, Tessco, FLIR, & Keybank.

Mountain Wave Com 8

Mountain Wave Emergency Communications is an Oregon non-profit organization founded in 1992. They provide a vast number of emergency services including, emergency medical services, cellular phone tracking, search and rescue teams, wild-land fire teams, and more! They’re made up of 150+ volunteer members and are 100% donation supported.

Learn more about Mountain Wave Emergency Communications and how you can help here: http://www.mwave.org/


Day Wireless Cell Tower Construction Video

The Day Wireless – Oregon tower construction crew recently installed this 100 ft monopole which will provide Verizon 4G coverage in Estacada, OR.

Interesting facts:

  • There are 56 inches of overlap between the two tower sections
  • The tower sections will settle down another foot over time
  • The tower weighs 14,000 lbs

Contact us for your Tower Construction needs including tower site construction from drawing board to field of operations, civil site construction, and equipment installation.

Day Wireless Systems Joins Brocade Partner Network as a Select Partner

Milwaukie, OR–July  6, 2016 – Day Wireless Systems, today announced that it is offering Brocade networking solutions, having joined the Brocade Partner Network as a Select partner. Day Wireless will deliver solutions and services primarily around Brocade’s campus network switch lineup.  Day Wireless secured accreditation to join the Brocade Partner Network as a Select Partner having proven its ability to efficiently deliver networking solutions to customers, as well as the organization’s extensive knowledge, skills, and expertise in the networking and wireless industry.


“Brocade is pleased to welcome Day Wireless as a Brocade Partner Network channel partner,” said Angela Quinn, Channel Manager, Western Sales region, Brocade. “As a member of the Brocade Partner Network channel program, they will have the ability to continually increase their knowledge of new and emerging IP technologies, which will lead to greater benefit of their customers.  Brocade is very excited to welcome Day Wireless as a partner in the West, and engage with all the high demands of IP business, with industry expertise in security, video surveillance, SLED and Healthcare solutions in the market.  With Brocade’s recent acquisition of Ruckus Wireless, Day Wireless Systems is well positioned to offer customers a complete end-to-end IT networking solution from the edge to core.”


The Brocade Partner Network channel program includes four partnership levels: Distributor, Elite, Premier and Select. All levels have been designed with specific requirements and benefits to help partners leverage and be rewarded for their networking product knowledge and solution support expertise. As part of this partner-enablement strategy, Brocade provides its partners with deal registration to help ensure project success and investment protection. In addition, Brocade has extensively expanded its dedicated sales, marketing and technical support offerings and incentives to help ensure profitable partnership engagement. All Brocade channel partners benefit from being part of Brocade’s extensive, world-class partner ecosystem, the Brocade Partner Network.  For more information on the Brocade Partner Network channel program, please visit http://www.brocade.com/en/partners/channel-partners/brocade-partner-network.html.

What are the Differences between the MOTOTRBO XPR 7550e Enabled, Capable, and the Legacy XPR 7550?

This article has been edited since the original post date of 3/2016 to reflect the current lineup of radios. (9/2016)

With so many different configurations of the XPR7000 series MOTOTRBO radio available, end users are bound to be confused.  Here, we try to break down the differences of just 3 of the models.  The top of the line XPR 7550e Enabled, XPR 7550e Capable, and XPR 7550.

The new XPR7550e will come in two versions, CAPABLE and ENABLED.

Both models will have the higher Ingress Protection Rating of IP68, optional UL (intrinsically safe) battery, Wi-Fi option, and improved receiver which boosts range by up to 8%.

XPR7550e CAPABLE models include:

  • 2100mAh battery
  • Optional Now Included– IP Site Connect
  • Optional Now Included– Capacity Plus
  • Optional Now Included– Linked Capacity Plus
  • Optional – Connect Plus, Capacity Max
  • Optional – Wi-Fi License
  • Optional – UL (intrinsically safe)

XPR7550e ENABLED models include:

  • 3000mAh battery
  • Included– IP Site Connect
  • Included – Capacity Plus
  • Included – Linked Capacity Plus or Capacity Max
  • Included – Connect Plus
  • Included – Wi-Fi license
  • Optional – UL (intrinsically safe)

The legacy XPR 7550 radio includes:

  • 2150mAh battery
  • Included– IP Site Connect
  • Included – Capacity Plus
  • Included – Linked Capacity Plus
  • Included – Connect Plus
  • IP67 Ingress Protection Rating
  • Optional – UL (intrinsically safe)

Which Radio Is Best for Me?

For users who are not needing the advanced feature sets of  MOTOTRBO, the CAPABLE radio option may be the radio for you.  The CAPABLE XPR 7550e radio comes in at a slightly reduced price point than the legacy XPR 7550.   The CAPABLE model also allows you to order the advanced options a la carte should you need them in the future.

Users who are operating on a MOTOTRBO trunked or multi-site system should consider migrating to the ENABLED version of the XPR 7550e. The price point is approximately 10% higher (MSRP) over the legacy XPR7550, however, the enhancements should justify the price increase.  Specific feature upgrades include Wi-Fi programming functionality, more ruggedness, better range, better batteries, and Bluetooth 4.0 which allows for indoor location.

Users who have a substantial fleet of legacy XPR 7550’s and do not want to mix their fleet can purchase the legacy version for the time being. Motorola will probably announce its cancellation this summer.  Motorola has temporarily increased the price of the legacy version XPR 7550 in anticipation of a cancellation in the near future.  After cancellation, the radios will be supported with service parts for a minimum of 5 years.  All audio and energy (batteries, chargers) accessories will be compatible with the “e” series models.

Top 3 Reasons Why Motorola’s New MOTOTRBO Radios are a Game Changer for Radio Fleet Managers

Next Generation MOTOTRBO e series portables
Next Generation MOTOTRBO e series portables

On February 29th, Motorola introduced the Next Generation of MOTOTRBO radios, the “e” series.

Professional Portable Radios: XPR7350e, XPR7550e

Compact and Capable: XPR3300e, XPR3500e

Slim line portable: SL7550e

Professional Mobiles: XPR5350e, XPR5550e

All of the new radios have the same form factor and basic features of their similarly named predecessors – with the addition of some major enhancements that will greatly benefit radio fleet managers.

1. All new e series radios have an integrated Wi-Fi option

Managing your radio fleet has been becoming more and more complex with the explosion of digital technology. Adding an alias, changing a setting, or adding a frequency could mean reprogramming and “touching” every single radio.  This could mean pulling radios out of the field, or having our technicians go from jobsite to jobsite in order to reprogram your radios, costing you time and money.

Over the air programming while sounding great in theory has had its problems due to the very low data throughput these radios are able to receive in traditional two-way spectrum.

Wi-Fi capability in conjunction with Motorola’s radio management software allows the radio manager to make changes to a codeplug or update firmware from a central location. When users are in (company) Wi-Fi range the radio will notify the user of the new codeplug and they can simply update it.  What once took weeks, days, or hours now takes days, hours, or minutes depending on the size of your operation.

2. Better battery life

A new high capacity battery option will allow for up to 28 hours of battery life. This is huge for multi-shift operations where battery management is a huge hassle.  The hi-cap batteries will just about double the battery life of the standard batteries in the XPR3000 and 7000 series.

3. New Intrinsically Safe Option

There is now another option in the MOTOTRBO line for intrinsically safe (formerly FM, now UL) customers. The intrinsically safe option on the XPR3000e series has been coveted for some time by fleet managers looking to provide a cost effective, compact, digital solution for hazardous location communication.



Are you dealing with radio interference? Reality check…your frequencies are probably not exclusive.

Commercial and government two-way radio users are required to operate with an FCC license.  A common misconception is that once properly licensed, the frequency that gets licensed to you becomes exclusive in that area.  Frequency coordinators do an admirable job trying to mitigate interference by geographically separating users on the same frequency as much as possible.  However, in some metro areas it is just not possible.  There is simply too much demand for the finite resource of land mobile radio (LMR) spectrum.  Even the 2013 narrowband mandate has not relieved the pressure of the overcrowding of spectrum in metro markets.

Taking a look at several metro markets on the West Coast, you can see how congested the traditional LMR bands have become.


  • The average UHF frequency in LA County is shared by 18 different licensed entities.
  • The most congested frequency (464.0375) is shared by 100 different entities.



  • The average UHF frequency in the Bay Area is shared by 13 different licensed entities.
  • The most congested frequency (467.85) is shared by 40 different entities.



  • The average UHF frequency in King County is shared by 5.4 different licensed entities.
  • The most congested frequency (456.4625) is shared by 25 different entities.


Want to know who shares your frequencies?  Email us for a free report.


Co-channel radio interference can cause busy tones, cross-business transmissions, and can impact the safety and productivity of your workforce.


We have a solution!

Day Wireless Systems is working together with Motorola to provide large on-site radio users the opportunity to lease EXCLUSIVE spectrum in 900 MHz at an extremely low spectrum acquisition cost.  The licenses will be valid for 10 years.  900 MHz is excellent for in-building signal propagation and should be a consideration for companies concerned with dependability and security of radio systems using shared spectrum.  Motorola has a complete line of 900 MHz equipment operating on the MOTOTRBO platform.


For more information about this program, please email us.

How to spot contenders vs pretenders when it comes to DAS Integrators?

I recently had a discussion with Jim Muzynoski, who manages our DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) business sales team. The following series of posts are excerpts of our conversation. The conversation revolves around the requirement for Emergency Responder Radio Coverage in buildings (International Fire Code ICC Section 510) and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 72).  DAS systems along with signal boosters are used to provide first responder/public safety radio coverage in buildings and other structures.

Part 3 of 3

What do you look for in a DAS integrator to show that they are a contender?

The first thing is certifications with the manufacturers. Are they certified installers of Commscope, or Solid, or TE or Corning, or any of the manufacturers that we represent? If you have certified technicians and engineering staff for these manufacturers it shows that you are a legitimate integrator. Do you actually have a design team that can design these systems? In many cases there are companies out there that are just guessing where to put the indoor antennas. They might be able to get away with it on a couple of projects but in the long run, those systems are not going to work and be balanced, optimized systems.

Along with the design team, do they have the design software? The industry standard is IBWave. If you have an integrator that has IBWave, they are a legitimate company. Having general radio license GROL, a lot of the guys out there are not radio technicians and were dealing with public safety radio enhancement systems. So you want an integrator that actually knows radio frequencies and public safety radio frequencies and not just the carriers.

We carry spectrum analyzers, we carry Anritsu’s which analyze frequencies and strength of signal of these signals from VHF to 2700 mhz so we can handle all spectrum. We also have PIM testers as well, it shows what interference you may potentially run into based on the different frequency bands you are amplifying. PIM testers are usually used in cellular deployments. That gear is expensive gear and it’s definitely a differentiator between legitimate companies and ones that might fly by night.

Day Wireless is public safety radio focused. We have relationships with all of these public safety radio agencies. Because of that if we were to turn up a system and the system were to have a negative effect on the overall wide area network, the customer would actually end up calling Day Wireless to fix the wide area network. So we actually have a vested interest in making these systems work because we would be the ones fixing it locally at the amp, but also at the wide area network level as well. Because of that, we are different than most of our competition.

What happens when you cause interference on a public safety radio system?

If there is significant interference, the public safety radio system on the wide area network will actually not work. Police and Fire will actually try to key up their radios and they won’t be able to talk to dispatch or each other. If there is an emergency situation, they would have no way to communicate. And those types of situations we want to avoid at all costs. For companies that don’t know what it’s like for those guys and don’t live in that world everyday they are not necessarily concerned with that. Whereas that’s all we’re concerned about. We want to make sure there is none of that at any time. And the fines for that type of things can be pretty extensive as well. The FCC can charge you thousands of dollars per day. So there’s definitely reports of issues and if you don’t immediately fix them the FCC will drop the hammer.

Want to learn more about DAS? Check out the rest of our interview with  Jim Muzynoski, manager of our DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) business sales team. 

Part 1: How Much Does a DAS Cost?

Part 2: What is the Biggest Mistake Customers Make When Buying or Installing a DAS Solution?

XPR6350 Fire Sale Pricing!

Day Wireless has purchased Motorola’s remaining inventory of MOTOTRBO XPR6350 UHF radios and is offering them at fire sale prices. These radios were discontinued on April 30, 2015, but will be supported for Motorola service through May 30, 2020. This is a great option for customers who currently have the XPR 6350 and would like to stock up at a cheap price. Motorola’s recommended replacement product for the XPR 6350 is the XPR 7350.



Brand new units

XPR 6350 – AAH55QDC9LA1

403-470 MHz, Non Display w/GPS, 1-4W, 32 Channels

Package includes:

  • IMPRES™ Li ion 2150mAh Battery (PMNN4077)
  • IMPRES™ Single Unit Charger (WPLN4232)
  • UHF GPS Antenna
  • 2.5″ Belt Clip (PMLN4652)
  • Accessory Dust Cover
  • Two Year Warranty
  • One Year Repair Service Advantage

What is the biggest mistake that customers make when buying/putting in a DAS?

I recently had a discussion with Jim Muzynoski, who manages our DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) business sales team. The following series of posts are excerpts of our conversation. The conversation revolves around the requirement for Emergency Responder Radio Coverage in buildings (International Fire Code ICC Section 510) and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 72).  DAS systems along with signal boosters are used to provide first responder/public safety radio coverage in buildings and other structures.

Part 2 of 3

When a customer is building a new building, they put out a bid to a bunch of electrical contractors and the public safety DAS is in the scope and integrators end up bidding on the DAS portion. Often times, the DAS is viewed as something that might not be a mandatory item in the project. So it ends up being taken out of the scope and they’ll say they’ll do a change order if we need to later. Then they don’t plan for it, and forget about it as construction goes along and then at the last minute the fire marshal will come in and say they need a DAS. What that does is it drastically raises the cost because electricals need to run the cable, it’s very difficult to run cable on an already built building. Lead times are long on this equipment. It costs the contractors a lot of money because they can’t close out the project. And it causes a lot of stress on the deal because you’re rushing through this project when you’ve had years to work on it. So the most important thing is when it is in the scope, keep it in the scope. Plan for those costs because they are necessary. The fire marshal will demand that it goes in. Even if they are not mentioning it now doesn’t mean they won’t remember it at the last minute because it is a hot button issue.

One example, we just had a project in LA where the customer started the project in 2012. He hadn’t thought about the DAS since even though it was in the scope in the beginning. They took it out of the scope and didn’t think about it, three years later literally the day before occupancy the fire marshal comes in and says you need a DAS system. The owner ended up having to pay extravagant fees because they could not occupy the building until the DAS system was put up and it took about 6 weeks to get the system in because it takes a long time to get specific amplifiers in low frequency bands such as VHF and UHF. In that case it probably cost the guy a couple extra hundred thousand dollars just because he waited when he could have planned up front. We run into this sort of situation, it seems like almost every day.

Want to learn more about DAS? Check out the rest of our interview with  Jim Muzynoski, manager of our DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) business sales team. 

Part 1: How Much Does a DAS System Cost?

Part 3: How to Spot Contenders vs Pretenders When It Comes To DAS Integrators?